Factors Related to Weight Loss Maintenance in the Medium-Long Term after Bariatric Surgery: A Review

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Despite bariatric surgery being the most effective treatment for obesity, some individuals do not respond adequately, especially in the long term. Identifying the predictors of correct weight maintenance in the medium (from 1 to 3 years after surgery) and long term (from 3 years and above) is of vital importance to reduce failure after bariatric surgery; therefore, we summarize the evidence about certain factors, among which we highlight surgical technique, psychological factors, physical activity, adherence to diet, gastrointestinal hormones or neurological factors related to appetite control. We conducted a search in PubMed focused on the last five years (2015-2021). Main findings are as follows: despite Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being more effective in the long term, sleeve gastrectomy shows a more beneficial effectiveness-complications balance; pre-surgical psychological and behavioral evaluation along with post-surgical treatment improve long-term surgical outcomes; physical activity programs after bariatric surgery, in addition to continuous and comprehensive care interventions regarding diet habits, improve weight loss maintenance, but it is necessary to improve adherence; the impact of bariatric surgery on the gut-brain axis seems to influence weight maintenance. In conclusion, although interesting findings exist, the evidence is contradictory in some places, and long-term clinical trials are necessary to draw more robust conclusions.
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CIE Terms
Bariatric surgery, Weight regain, Surgical technique, Psychological disorders, Physical activity, Diet, Gut hormones, Gut–brain axis, Cirugía bariátrica, Ejercicio físico, Dieta
Cornejo-Pareja I, Molina-Vega M, Gómez-Pérez AM, Damas-Fuentes M, Tinahones FJ. Factors Related to Weight Loss Maintenance in the Medium-Long Term after Bariatric Surgery: A Review. J Clin Med. 2021 Apr 16;10(8):1739