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Title: AM404, paracetamol metabolite, prevents prostaglandin synthesis in activated microglia by inhibiting COX activity.
Authors: Saliba, Soraya Wilke
Marcotegui, Ariel R
Fortwängler, Ellen
Ditrich, Johannes
Perazzo, Juan Carlos
Muñoz, Eduardo
de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro
Fiebich, Bernd L
Keywords: AM404;Acetaminophen;Cyclooxygenase;Inflammation;Microglia;Prostaglandins
metadata.dc.subject.mesh: Acetaminophen
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Arachidonic Acids
Cells, Cultured
Cyclooxygenase 1
Cyclooxygenase 2
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Issue Date: 13-Dec-2017
Abstract: N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404), a paracetamol metabolite, is a potent agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and low-affinity ligand of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). There is evidence that AM404 exerts its pharmacological effects in immune cells. However, the effect of AM404 on the production of inflammatory mediators of the arachidonic acid pathway in activated microglia is still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of AM404 on the eicosanoid production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organotypic hippocampal slices culture (OHSC) and primary microglia cultures using Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. Our results show that AM404 inhibited LPS-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in OHSC, and LPS-stimulated PGE2 release was totally abolished in OHSC if microglial cells were removed. In primary microglia cultures, AM404 led to a significant dose-dependent decrease in the release of PGE2, independent of TRPV1 or CB1 receptors. Moreover, AM404 also inhibited the production of PGD2 and the formation of reactive oxygen species (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) with a reversible reduction of COX-1- and COX-2 activity. Also, it slightly decreased the levels of LPS-induced COX-2 protein, although no effect was observed on LPS-induced mPGES-1 protein synthesis. This study provides new significant insights about the potential anti-inflammatory role of AM404 and new mechanisms of action of paracetamol on the modulation of prostaglandin production by activated microglia.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1186/s12974-017-1014-3
Appears in Collections:Producción 2020

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