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|Title:||Treatment of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-, AmpC-, and Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.|
|Keywords:||antimicrobial therapy;bloodstream infections;carbapenemases;extended-spectrum β-lactamases;mortality;multidrug resistance|
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
|Abstract:||Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These drugs might be considered in some specific situations. AmpC producers are resistant to cephamycins, but cefepime is an option. In the case of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), only some "second-line" drugs, such as polymyxins, tigecycline, aminoglycosides, and fosfomycin, may be active; double carbapenems can also be considered in specific situations. Combination therapy is associated with better outcomes for high-risk patients, such as those in septic shock or with pneumonia. Ceftazidime-avibactam was recently approved and is active against KPC and OXA-48 producers; the available experience is scarce but promising, although development of resistance is a concern. New drugs active against some CPE isolates are in different stages of development, including meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem-relebactam, plazomicin, cefiderocol, eravacycline, and aztreonam-avibactam. Overall, therapy of MDR-E infection must be individualized according to the susceptibility profile, type, and severity of infection and the features of the patient.|
|Appears in Collections:||Producción 2020|
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