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Title: The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.
Authors: Polderman, Tinca J C
Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C
Irwig, Michael S
Beach, Lauren
Chan, Yee-Ming
Derks, Eske M
Esteva, Isabel
Ehrenfeld, Jesse
Heijer, Martin Den
Posthuma, Danielle
Raynor, Lewis
Tishelman, Amy
Davis, Lea K
International Gender Diversity Genomics Consortium
Keywords: Gender dysphoria;Gender identity;Genetics;Heritability;Transgender;Twin studies
metadata.dc.subject.mesh: Female
Gender Dysphoria
Gender Identity
Sex Characteristics
Sexual Behavior
Transgender Persons
Issue Date: 19-Feb-2018
Abstract: The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1007/s10519-018-9889-z
Appears in Collections:Producción 2020

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