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Title: Microglia: Agents of the CNS Pro-Inflammatory Response
Authors: Rodríguez-Gómez, José A.
Kavanagh, Edel
Engskog-Vlachos, Pinelopi
Engskog, Mikael K. R.
Herrera, Antonio J.
Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M.
Joseph, Bertrand
Hajji, Nabil
Venero, José L.
Burguillos, Miguel A.
metadata.dc.contributor.authoraffiliation: [Rodríguez-Gómez,JA; Herrera,AJ; Espinosa-Oliva,AM; Venero,JL; Burguillos,MA] Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBIS)-Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain. [Rodríguez-Gómez,JA] Department of Medical Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Seville, Sevilla, Spain. [Kavanagh,E; Herrera,AJ; Espinosa-Oliva,AM; Venero,JL; Burguillos,MA] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain. [Engskog-Vlachos,P; Joseph,B] Institute of Environmental Medicine, Toxicology Unit, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. [Engskog,MKR] Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. [Hajji,N] Division of Brain Sciences, The John Fulcher Molecular Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK.
Keywords: Microglia;Inflammation;TLR4;TREM2;Caspases;Epigenetics;metabolomics;iPSCs;Microglía;Inflamación;Receptor Toll-Like 4;Caspasas;Epigenómica;Metabolómica;Células madre pluripotentes inducidas
metadata.dc.subject.mesh: Medical Subject Headings::Organisms::Eukaryota::Animals
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins::Peptides::Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins::Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins::Caspases
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Nervous System::Central Nervous System
Medical Subject Headings::Phenomena and Processes::Genetic Phenomena::Genetic Processes::Gene Expression Regulation::Epigenesis, Genetic
Medical Subject Headings::Organisms::Eukaryota::Animals::Chordata::Vertebrates::Mammals::Primates::Haplorhini::Catarrhini::Hominidae::Humans
Medical Subject Headings::Diseases::Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms::Pathologic Processes::Inflammation
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Cells::Neuroglia::Microglia
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Investigative Techniques::Models, Theoretical::Models, Biological
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Cells::Stem Cells::Pluripotent Stem Cells::Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Medical Subject Headings::Disciplines and Occupations::Natural Science Disciplines::Biological Science Disciplines::Biology::Genetics::Genomics::Epigenomics
Issue Date: 17-Jul-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Rodríguez-Gómez JA, Kavanagh E, Engskog-Vlachos P, Engskog MKR, Herrera AJ, Espinosa-Oliva AM, et al. Microglia: Agents of the CNS Pro-Inflammatory Response. Cells. 2020 Jul 17;9(7):1717
Abstract: The pro-inflammatory immune response driven by microglia is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Though the research of microglia spans over a century, the last two decades have increased our understanding exponentially. Here, we discuss the phenotypic transformation from homeostatic microglia towards reactive microglia, initiated by specific ligand binding to pattern recognition receptors including toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) or triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), as well as pro-inflammatory signaling pathways triggered such as the caspase-mediated immune response. Additionally, new research disciplines such as epigenetics and immunometabolism have provided us with a more holistic view of how changes in DNA methylation, microRNAs, and the metabolome may influence the pro-inflammatory response. This review aimed to discuss our current knowledge of pro-inflammatory microglia from different angles, including recent research highlights such as the role of exosomes in spreading neuroinflammation and emerging techniques in microglia research including positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and the use of human microglia generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Finally, we also discuss current thoughts on the impact of pro-inflammatory microglia in neurodegenerative diseases.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.3390/cells9071717
ISSN: 2073-4409 (Online)
Appears in Collections:01- Artículos - Hospital Virgen del Rocío
01- Artículos - IBIS. Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla

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