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Title: Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Regenerative Medicine: Applications in Skin Wound Healing
Authors: Casado-Díaz, Antonio
Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel
Dorado, Gabriel
metadata.dc.contributor.authoraffiliation: [Casado-Díaz;A; Quesada-Gómez,JM] Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Endocrinología y Nutrición, CIBER de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERFES), Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain. [Dorado,G] Dep. de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Campus Rabanales C6-1-E17, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario (ceiA3), Universidad de Córdoba, CIBERFES, Córdoba, Spain.
Keywords: Exosomes;Mesenchymal stem cells;Skin;Wound healing;Regenerative medicine;Extracellular vesicles;Exosomas;Células madre mesenquimatosas;Piel;Cicatrización de heridas;Medicina regenerativa;Vesículas extracelulares
metadata.dc.subject.mesh: Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Cells::Cellular Structures::Intracellular Space::Cytoplasm::Cytoplasmic Structures::Organelles::Cytoplasmic Vesicles::Transport Vesicles::Exosomes
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Surgical Procedures, Operative::Transplantation::Cell Transplantation::Stem Cell Transplantation::Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Integumentary System::Skin
Medical Subject Headings::Phenomena and Processes::Biological Phenomena::Biological Processes::Regeneration::Wound Healing
Medical Subject Headings::Disciplines and Occupations::Health Occupations::Medicine::Regenerative Medicine
Medical Subject Headings::Phenomena and Processes::Cell Physiological Phenomena::Cell Physiological Processes::Signal Transduction
Medical Subject Headings::Phenomena and Processes::Cell Physiological Phenomena::Cell Physiological Processes::Cell Differentiation
Medical Subject Headings::Phenomena and Processes::Cell Physiological Phenomena::Cell Physiological Processes::Cell Growth Processes::Cell Proliferation
Medical Subject Headings::Health Care::Population Characteristics::Socioeconomic Factors
Issue Date: 3-Mar-2020
Publisher: Frontiers
Citation: Casado-Díaz A, Quesada-Gómez JM, Dorado G. Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) in Regenerative Medicine: Applications in Skin Wound Healing. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2020 Mar 3;8:146
Abstract: The cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV) that may have an endosomal origin, or from evaginations of the plasma membrane. The former are usually called exosomes, with sizes ranging from 50 to 100 nm. These EV contain a lipid bilayer associated to membrane proteins. Molecules such as nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA, etc.) and proteins may be stored inside. The EV composition depends on the producer cell type and its physiological conditions. Through them, the cells modify their microenvironment and the behavior of neighboring cells. That is accomplished by transferring factors that modulate different metabolic and signaling pathways. Due to their properties, EV can be applied as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in medicine. The mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have immunomodulatory properties and a high regenerative capacity. These features are linked to their paracrine activity and EV secretion. Therefore, research on exosomes produced by MSC has been intensified for use in cell-free regenerative medicine. In this area, the use of EV for the treatment of chronic skin ulcers (CSU) has been proposed. Such sores occur when normal healing does not resolve properly. That is usually due to excessive prolongation of the inflammatory phase. These ulcers are associated with aging and diseases, such as diabetes, so their prevalence is increasing with the one of such latter disease, mainly in developed countries. This has very important socio-economic repercussions. In this review, we show that the application of MSC-derived EV for the treatment of CSU has positive effects, including accelerating healing and decreasing scar formation. This is because the EV have immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties. Likewise, they have the ability to activate the angiogenesis, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of the main cell types involved in skin regeneration. They include endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Most of the studies carried out so far are preclinical. Therefore, there is a need to advance more in the knowledge about the conditions of production, isolation, and action mechanisms of EV. Interestingly, their potential application in the treatment of CSU opens the door for the design of new highly effective therapeutic strategies.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00146
ISSN: 2296-4185 (Online)
Appears in Collections:01- Artículos - Hospital Reina Sofía
01- Artículos - IMIBIC. Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba

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