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Title: Protocols for cognitive enhancement. A user manual for Brain Health Services-part 5 of 6
Authors: Brioschi Guevara, Andrea
Bieler, Melanie
Altomare, Daniele
Berthier, Marcelo
Csajka, Chantal
Dautricourt, Sophie
Démonet, Jean-François
Dodich, Alessandra
Frisoni, Giovanni B.
Miniussi, Carlo
Molinuevo, José Luis
Ribaldi, Federica
Scheltens, Philip
Chételat, Gael
metadata.dc.contributor.authoraffiliation: [Brioschi Guevara,A; Bieler,M; Démonet,JF] Centre Leenaards de la Mémoire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland. [Altomare,D; Frisoni,GB; Ribaldi,F] Laboratory of Neuroimaging of Aging (LANVIE), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. [Altomare,D; Frisoni,GB; Ribaldi,F] Memory Clinic, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. [Berthier,M] Unit of Cognitive Neurology and Aphasia, Centro de Investigaciones Médico-Sanitarias, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain. [Berthier,M] Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga – IBIMA, Malaga, Spain. [Csajka,C] Center for Research and Innovation in clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. [Csajka,C] School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. [Csajka,C] Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland. [Dautricourt,S; Chételat,G] Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, INSERM, PhIND “Physiopathology and Imaging of Neurological Disorders”, Institut Blood and Brain @ Caen-Normandie, Cyceron, France. [Dodich,A; Miniussi,C] Center for Mind/ Brain Sciences – CIMeC, University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy. [Molinuevo,JL] Barcelonaβeta Brain Research Center, Pasqual Maragall Foundation, Barcelona, Spain. [Ribaldi,F] Laboratory of Alzheimer’s Neuroimaging and Epidemiology (LANE), Saint John of God Clinical Research Centre, Brescia, Italy. [Ribaldi,F] Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. [Scheltens,P] Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit.
Keywords: Subjective cognitive decline;Cognitive enhancement;Cognitive intervention;Mindfulness meditation;Physical training;Non-invasive brain stimulation;Drugs;Brain health service;Disfunción cognitiva;Atención plena;Meditación;Acondicionamiento físico
metadata.dc.subject.mesh: Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Enzymes and Coenzymes::Enzymes::Hydrolases::Esterases::Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases::Cholinesterases::Acetylcholinesterase
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Nervous System::Central Nervous System::Brain
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Therapeutics::Clinical Protocols
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Chemical Actions and Uses::Pharmacologic Actions::Therapeutic Uses::Central Nervous System Agents::Psychotropic Drugs::Antidepressive Agents
Medical Subject Headings::Organisms::Eukaryota::Plants::Viridiplantae::Streptophyta::Embryophyta::Gymnosperms::Ginkgo biloba
Medical Subject Headings::Organisms::Eukaryota::Animals::Chordata::Vertebrates::Mammals::Primates::Haplorhini::Catarrhini::Hominidae::Humans
Medical Subject Headings::Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena::Social Sciences::Quality of Life
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Enzymes and Coenzymes::Enzymes::Hydrolases::Esterases::Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases::Cholinesterases::Acetylcholinesterase
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Organic Chemicals::Hydrocarbons::Hydrocarbons, Cyclic::Bridged Compounds::Adamantane::Amantadine::Memantine
Medical Subject Headings::Diseases::Nervous System Diseases::Neurologic Manifestations::Neurobehavioral Manifestations::Memory Disorders
Issue Date: 11-Oct-2021
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation: Brioschi Guevara A, Bieler M, Altomare D, Berthier M, Csajka C, Dautricourt S, et al. Protocols for cognitive enhancement. A user manual for Brain Health Services-part 5 of 6. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2021 Oct 11;13(1):172
Abstract: Cognitive complaints in the absence of objective cognitive impairment, observed in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), are common in old age. The first step to postpone cognitive decline is to use techniques known to improve cognition, i.e., cognitive enhancement techniques.We aimed to provide clinical recommendations to improve cognitive performance in cognitively unimpaired individuals, by using cognitive, mental, or physical training (CMPT), non-invasive brain stimulations (NIBS), drugs, or nutrients. We made a systematic review of CMPT studies based on the GRADE method rating the strength of evidence.CMPT have clinically relevant effects on cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. The quality of evidence supporting the improvement of outcomes following a CMPT was high for metamemory; moderate for executive functions, attention, global cognition, and generalization in daily life; and low for objective memory, subjective memory, motivation, mood, and quality of life, as well as a transfer to other cognitive functions. Regarding specific interventions, CMPT based on repeated practice (e.g., video games or mindfulness, but not physical training) improved attention and executive functions significantly, while CMPT based on strategic learning significantly improved objective memory.We found encouraging evidence supporting the potential effect of NIBS in improving memory performance, and reducing the perception of self-perceived memory decline in SCD. Yet, the high heterogeneity of stimulation protocols in the different studies prevent the issuing of clear-cut recommendations for implementation in a clinical setting. No conclusive argument was found to recommend any of the main pharmacological cognitive enhancement drugs ("smart drugs", acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, antidepressant) or herbal extracts (Panax ginseng, Gingko biloba, and Bacopa monnieri) in people without cognitive impairment.Altogether, this systematic review provides evidence for CMPT to improve cognition, encouraging results for NIBS although more studies are needed, while it does not support the use of drugs or nutrients.
metadata.dc.identifier.doi: 10.1186/s13195-021-00844-1
ISSN: 1758-9193 (Online)
Appears in Collections:01- Artículos - IBIMA. Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga

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